A new model for dark matter

A new model for dark matter

This NASA Hubble House Telescope picture reveals the distribution of darkish matter within the middle of the enormous galaxy cluster Abell 1689, which comprises about 1,000 galaxies and trillions of stars. Darkish matter is an invisible type of matter that makes up a lot of the mass of the universe. Hubble can’t see darkish matter straight. Astronomers inferred its location by analyzing the impact of gravitational lensing, by which gentle from galaxies behind Abell 1689 is distorted by interference of matter inside the cluster. The researchers used the noticed positions of 135 lensed photos of 42 background galaxies to calculate the placement and quantity of darkish matter within the cluster. They mapped the inferred darkish matter concentrations, in blue, to a picture of the cluster taken by Hubble’s Superior Digicam for Surveys. If the cluster’s gravity got here from solely seen galaxies, the lensing distortions can be a lot weaker. The map reveals that the densest focus of darkish matter is on the coronary heart of the cluster. Abell 1689 is positioned 2.2 billion light-years from Earth. Picture taken June 2002. Credit score: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory / California Institute of Expertise, House Telescope Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (College of Basque Nation, Spain), and H. Ford (Johns Hopkins College)

Darkish matter stays one of many nice mysteries of contemporary physics. Clearly, it should exist, as a result of with out darkish matter, for instance, the movement of galaxies can’t be defined. However darkish matter has by no means been attainable to detect in an experiment.

There are at present many proposals for brand new experiments: aimed toward detecting darkness Factor straight by their scattering from the parts of the atomic nuclei of the detection medium, i.e. protons and neutrons.

A crew of researchers — Robert McGee and Aaron Pearce of the College of Michigan and Geli Ellor of the Johannes Gutenberg College in Mainz, Germany — has proposed a brand new darkish matter candidate: HYPER, or “Extremely Interactive Particulate Relics.”

Within the HYPER mannequin, a while after the formation of darkish matter in early universeIts interplay with bizarre matter is surprisingly getting stronger – making it attainable to detect it in the present day and on the similar time explaining the abundance of darkish matter.

The brand new variety at nighttime matter sector

As a result of the seek for heavy darkish matter particles, or WIMPS, has not but led to success, the analysis neighborhood is searching for different darkish matter particles, particularly lighter ones. On the similar time, one would typically count on section transitions In the dead of night sector – in any case, there are a lot of extra within the seen sector, the researchers say. However earlier research are inclined to neglect it.

“There hasn’t been a constant mannequin of darkish matter for the mass vary that some deliberate experiments hope to hit,” mentioned Elor, the postdoctoral researcher. “Nevertheless, our HYPER mannequin reveals that section transition can truly assist make darkish matter detection simpler.” in theoretical physics at JGU.

The problem for an satisfactory mannequin: If darkish matter interacts strongly with bizarre matter, then the (precisely recognized) quantity of it fashioned within the early universe can be very small, which contradicts astrophysical observations. Nevertheless, if produced in the correct quantity, the interplay can be too weak to detect darkish matter in present experiments.

“Our central concept, which underpins the HYPER mannequin, is that the interplay all of a sudden adjustments abruptly – so we are able to get the perfect of each worlds: the correct quantity of darkish matter and a number of interplay in order that we are able to detect it,” McGee mentioned.

A new model for dark matter

Constraints within the mass- and nucleon-intermediate coupling stage from the cooling of HB stars [25] and SN 1987A [12]in addition to uncommon Kaon decomposition [26] (grey shading). credit score: Bodily overview letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

And that is how the researchers envision it: In particle physics, the interplay is often mediated by a selected particle, the so-called medium — and so is the interplay of darkish matter with bizarre matter. Each the composition of darkish matter and its detection perform happen through this medium, with the power of the interplay depending on its mass: the better the mass, the weaker the interplay.

The medium should first be heavy sufficient in order that the correct quantity of darkish matter is fashioned and later sufficient gentle that darkish matter might be detected in any respect. Resolution: There was a section transition after the formation of darkish matter, by which the mass of the medium all of a sudden decreased.

“So, on the one hand, the quantity of darkish matter stays fixed, and alternatively, the interplay is enhanced or strengthened in such a method that the darkish matter is straight detectable,” Pearce mentioned.

The brand new mannequin covers virtually the whole parameter vary of the deliberate experiments

“The HYPER mannequin of darkish matter is ready to cowl virtually the whole vary that the brand new experiments are making out there,” Ellor mentioned.

Particularly, the analysis crew first thought-about the utmost cross-section of the interplay medium with the protons and neutrons of an atomic nucleus to be in keeping with astronomical observations and a few particle physics decompositions. The subsequent step was to see if there was a mannequin of darkish matter that confirmed this interplay.

“And that is the place we got here up with the thought of ​​transition,” McGee mentioned. “We then calculated the quantity of darkish matter current within the universe after which simulated the section transition utilizing our calculations.”

There are a slew of limitations to remember, reminiscent of a hard and fast quantity of darkish matter.

“Right here, now we have to systematically take into account and embrace a number of eventualities, for instance, asking the query whether or not it’s actually sure that our medium doesn’t all of a sudden result in the formation of darkish matterAnd that, after all, does not need to be the case,” Ellor mentioned. However in the long run, we have been satisfied that HYPER Mannequin Works “.

Publication of the analysis within the journal Bodily overview letters.

extra info:
Gilly Elor et al, Maximizing Direct Detection Utilizing Extremely Interacting Particle Darkish Matter, Bodily overview letters (2023). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.130.031803

Introduction of
College of Michigan

the quote: A New Mannequin for Darkish Matter (2023, January 23) Retrieved January 23, 2023 from https://phys.org/information/2023-01-dark.html

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